Materi SMA


A. Pendahuluan

Sebagaimana yang sudah kita ketahui bersama bahwa pembelajaran bahasa Inggris untuk SMA di Indonesia, sejak  Standar Isi diberlakukan, menggunakan pendekatan berbasis jenis teks (Genre Based Approach). Pendekatan ini menuntut guru bahasa Inggris SMA untuk belajar kembali tentang berbagai jenis teks yang akan diajarkan. Halaman ini berisi rangkuman berbagai materi mengenai jenis-jenis teks; tujuan komunikasi, struktur dan ciri-ciri kebahasaannya. Materi kami ambil dari berbagai sumber.

B. Categories of Text Types

Literary Text
Factual Text
  • Narrative
  • Literary Recount
  • Observation
  • Literary description
  • Personal Response
  • Review
  • Factual description
  • Information report
  • Procedure
  • Procedural recount
  • Factual recount
  • Explanation
  • Exposition
  • Discussion

C. Description of Factual Text Types

Text Type Purpose Features
Factual Description Describe living, nonliving or natural phenonema
(Describes something or someone)
Introductory paragraph about subject
Series of paragraphs describing different aspects of subject
Optional concluding paragraph
e.g. Texts in information books
Information Report Classify and describe general classes of phenonema
(Describes a class of things)
Opening general definition or classification
Sequence of related statements about topic
Concluding statement
e.g. text books
Procedure To instruct how things are done through a series of steps
(Tells how to do something)
Opening statement of goal or aim
Materials required are listed in order of use
Series of steps listed in chronological order eg recipe
Procedural Recount Record steps taken to achieve a goal or outcome
(Tells how something was achieved)
How things were made
To recount in sequential order the steps taken to achieve a particular goal/outcome after doing a procedure.
e.g scientific experiment
Factual Recount Retell a series of events in the order they occurred
(Tells what happened)
Orientation – background information about who, where and when
Series of events in chronological order
A personal comment
e.g. Historical report
Explanation To explain scientifically how technologically and why natural phenomena came into being
(Explains how things happen and why they are as they are)
A general statement
Series of paragraphs explaining how or why
Series of events in chronological order
Concluding statement
Exposition To argue a case for or against a point of view about an an issue
(Argues a point of view)
Point of view is stated
Justifications of arguments presented in logical order
Summing up of argument and reinforcement of point of view
Discussion To present issues for more than one perspective and make recommendations based on evidence
(Discusses different points of view and makes a judgement)
statement of the issue and a preview of the main points
arguments for and supporting evidence
arguments against and supporting evidence (alternatively argument/counter argument a point at a time)
recommendation – summary and conclusion
Sumber: Senior Resource Centre
Text Types Social Purpose


Grammatical Features
Report To give generalised information about an entire class of things. General StatementDescription: Use of general nouns, relating verbsUse of adjectives: quantity, factual; and classifyingRepeated naming of the topic as theme

Adverbials: place and manner

Present/ simple tense

Exposition Persuasive texts that argue a care for or against a particular point of view. BackgroundSeries of ArgumentReinforcement of Position NominalisationTechnical nounsSensing verbs

Varying degrees of modality and textual theme

Recount Record the steps taken to carry out an investigation., AimRecord of EventsResults Use of particular nounsAction verbsReferences and expressions to time

Expression of cause and effect

Explanation To explain scientifically how technological and natural phenomena come into being. IdentificationExplanation sequence. Nouns: General, abstract, technical, non humanAdjectival: factual and classifyingAction verbs

Time and casual conjunctions

Passive voice and nominalisation

Procedure Tell hot to do or make something by giving a sequence of steps to follow. Goal of activityMaterialsSteps Action verbsConnectivesAdverbials

Dependent clauses

Referensi tentang text types:

D.  How to teach text types

How to Teach Text Types by Rudi Hartono, SS, M.Pd

How to teach information text

How to teach instructional text

Posters of text types

English K-6 module Board of Studies NSW

Reading 1 English K-6

Reading 2 English K-6

Speaking English K-6

Writing English K-6

How to Teach Text Types

At the end of this course, the students generally are expected to be able to write texts based on the genres of writing.

At the end of this course, the students specifically are expected to:

  • To know the basic theory of the genres of texts: recount, report, analytical exposition, news item, anecdote, narration, procedure, description, hortatory exposition, explanation, discussion, review, and commentary.
  • To be able to analyze the social function, schematic structure, and significant grammatical patterns of texts.
  • To be able to write texts based on the genres.

A. Building knowledge of the field:


  • Cultural context
  • Shared experience
  • Control relevant vocabulary
  • Grammatical patterns
  • Use of visual—photographs, filmstrips, video—to build context.
  • Do activities such as cooking, going for a vacation, interviewing an informant, listening to guest speakers, etc.
  • Reconstruct and discuss activities done when back in the classroom.
  • Design activities in order to share, discuss, and argue about aspects of the topic.
  • Set language lesson focused on vocabulary or grammatical patterns.
  • Study a broad range of written texts related to the topic, such as school brochures, notes, newsletter, labels, leaflets, and enrolment forms.
  • Develop reading strategies appropriate to the texts, including predicting, skimming, scanning, or identifying the logo.

B. Modeling of Text:


  • Cultural context
  • Social function
  • Schematic structure
  • Linguistic features

Study the model text shown by the teacher or read it yourself or collectively in the references.

  • Develop an understanding of the social function and purpose of the text:
    • Why are such texts written?
    • By whom are they written and read?
    • What is the context in which they will be used?
  • Analyze the schematic structure of the text (distinguishing and labeling stages within the schematic structure of the genre).
  • Analyze the grammatical pattern or language features of the text (use of tense, technical language, specific or generic participants).

C. Joint Construction of Text:


  • Schematic structure
  • Linguistic features
  • Knowledge of field

Revise and discuss the purpose, context, and structure of genre/text.

  • Explore further field building activities where necessary.
  • Negotiate the beginning, middle and end construction of text between teacher and students, and between students, draw on shared knowledge about the genre.
  • Re-draft and edit the text, draw on shared knowledge about the genre together in groups (between teacher and students, and between students).

D. Independent Construction Text:


  • Schematic structure
  • Linguistic features
  • Knowledge of field
  • Build and develop knowledge of the field through activities such as reading, information gathering, and note taking.
  • Write your own text with appropriate schematic structure and grammatical patterns.
  • Consult with other students or with teacher regarding the appropriateness of the text.
  • Re-drafting and editing where necessary.
  • Discuss any difficulties with students or teachers in writing texts.
  • Focus on language lessons (spelling, punctuation, layout of text, handwriting).                                                (Hammond, 1992)

E. Implementing a text-based approach

Feez and Joyce (1998, 28-31) give the following description of how a text-based approach is implemented:

Phase1. Building the context

In this stage students:

• Are introduced to the social context of an authentic model of the text-type being studied

• Explore features of the general cultural context in which the text-type is used and the social purposes the text-type achieves

• Explore the immediate context of situation by investigating the register of a model text which has been selected on the basis of the course objectives and learner need

• An exploration of register involves:

Building knowledge of the topic of the model text and knowledge of the social activity in which the text is used, e.g. job seeking

Understanding the roles and relationships of the people using the text and how these are established and maintained,

e.g. the relationship between a job seeker and a prospective employer

Understanding the channel of communication being used, e.g. using the telephone, speaking face-to-face with

members of an interview panel

Phase one. Context building activities include:

•  Presenting the context through pictures, audiovisual materials, realia, excursions, field-trips, guest speakers etc

•   Establishing the social purpose through discussions or surveys etc

•   Cross cultural activities such as comparing differences in the use of the text in two cultures

•   Comparing the model text with other texts of the same or a contrasting type e.g. comparing a job interview with a complex spoken exchange involving close friends, a work colleague or a stranger in a service encounter.

Phase 2 Modelling and deconstructing the text

In this stage students:

• Investigate the structural pattern and language features of the model

• Compare the model with other examples of the same text-type

Feez and Joyce (1998) comment that “modeling and deconstruction are undertaken at both the whole text, clause and expression levels. It is at this stage that many traditional ESL language teaching activities come into their own”.

Phase 3 Joint construction of the text

In this stage:

•  Students begin to contribute to the construction of whole examples of the text-type

•  The teacher gradually reduces the contribution to text construction, as the students move closer to being able to control text-type independently

Joint construction activities include:

• Teacher questioning, discussing and editing whole class construction, then scribing onto board or OHT

•  Skeleton texts

•  Jigsaw and information gap activities

•  Small group construction of tests

• Dictogloss

• Self-assessment and peer assessment activities

Phase 4 Independent construction of the text

In this stage:

• Students work independently with the text

• Learner performances are used for achievement assessment

Independent construction activities include:

•  Listening tasks, e.g. comprehension activities in response to live or recorded material such as performing a task, sequencing pictures, numbering, ticking or underlining material on a worksheet, answering questions

•  Listening and speaking tasks, e.g. role plays, simulated or authentic dialogs

• Speaking tasks e.g. spoken presentation to class, community organization, workplace

• Reading tasks e.g. comprehension activities in response to written material such as performing a task, sequencing pictures, numbering, ticking or underlining material on a worksheet, answering questions

• Writing tasks which demand that students draft and present whole texts

Phase 5 Linking to related texts

In this stage students investigate how what they have learnt in this teaching/learning cycle can be related to:

• Other texts in the same or similar context

• Future or past cycles of teaching and learning

Activities which link the text-type to related texts include:

• Comparing the use of the text-type across different fields

• Researching other text-types used in the same field

• Role-playing what happens if the same text-type is used by people with different roles and relationships

• Comparing spoken and written modes of the same text-type

• Researching how a key language feature used in this text-type is used in other text-types

Problems with implementing a text-based approach

As can be seen from the above summary, a text-based approach focuses on the products of learning rather than the processes involved. Critics have pointed out that an emphasis on individual creativity and personal expression is missing from the TBI model which is heavily wedded to a methodology based on the study of model texts and the creation of texts based on models. Likewise critics point out that there is a danger that the approach becomes repetitive and boring over time since the five phase cycle described above is applied to the teaching of all four skills.

Sumber: Communicative Language Teaching, Jack C. Richards

The story of Toba Lake

Reading a narrative is very interesting. Salah satu contoh teks narrative adalah cerita rakyat. Kenapa cerita rakyat yang ditulis bisa disebut sebagai narrative text? Element conflict antar pelaku cerita dalam dongen, legenda, cerita rakyat biasanya begitu kental. Itulah kenapa secara sederhana cerita rakyat umumnya bisa di kategorikan sebagai sebuah text narrative.  Let’s see the following example of narrative text!
Narrative Text: The story of Toba Lake
Contoh narrative text: the tory of lake Toba
Once upon a time, there was a man who was living in north Sumatra. He lived in a simple hut in a farming field. The did some gardening and fishing for his daily life.
One day, while the man was do fishing, he caught a big golden fish in his trap. It was the biggest catch which he ever had in his life. Surprisingly, this fish turned into a beautiful princess. He felt in love with her and proposed her to be his wife. She said; “Yes, but you have to promise not to tell anyone about the secret that I was once a fish, otherwise there will be a huge disaster”. The man made the deal and they got married, lived happily and had a daughter.
Few years later, this daughter would help bringing lunch to her father out in the fields. One day, his daughter was so hungry and she ate his father’s lunch. Unfortunately, he found out and got furious, and shouted; “You damned daughter of a fish”. The daughter ran home and asked her mother. The mother started crying, felt sad that her husband had broke his promise.
Then she told her daughter to run up the hills because a huge disaster was about to come. When her daughter left, she prayed. Soon there was a big earthquake followed by non-stop pouring rain. The whole area got flooded and became Toba Lake. She turned into a fish again and the man became the island of Samosir.

Tangkuban Perahu Mountain

The Story of Sangkuriang and Tangkuban Perahu Mountain
Once, there was a kingdom in Priangan Land. Lived a happy family. They were a father in form of dog,his name is Tumang, a mother which was called is Dayang Sumbi, and a child which was called Sangkuriang.
One day, Dayang Sumbi asked her son to go hunting with his lovely dog, Tumang. After hunting all day, Sangkuriang began desperate and worried because he hunted no deer. Then he thought to shot his own dog. Then he took the dog liver and carried home.
Soon Dayang Sumbi found out that it was not deer lever but Tumang’s, his own dog. So, She was very angry and hit Sangkuriang’s head. In that incident, Sangkuriang got wounded and scar then cast away from their home.
Years go bye, Sangkuriang had travel many places and finally arrived at a village. He met a beautiful woman and felt in love with her. When they were discussing their wedding plans, The woman looked at the wound in Sangkuriang’s head. It matched to her son’s wound who had left severall years earlier. Soon she realized that she felt in love with her own son.
She couldn’t marry him but how to say it. Then, she found the way. She needed a lake and a boat for celebrating their wedding day. Sangkuriang had to make them in one night. He built a lake. With a dawn just moment away and the boat was almost complete. Dayang Sumbi had to stop it. Then, she lit up the eastern horizon with flashes of light. It made the cock crowed for a new day.
Sangkuriang failed to marry her. She was very angry and kicked the boat. It felt over and became the mountain of Tangkuban Perahu Bandung.

The Myth of Malin Kundang

The Myth of Malin Kundang
A long time ago, in a small village near the beach in West Sumatra, a woman and her son lived. They were Malin Kundang and her mother. Her mother was a single parent because Malin Kundang’s father had passed away when he was a baby. Malin Kundang had to live hard with his mother.
Malin Kundang was a healthy, dilligent, and strong boy. He usually went to sea to catch fish. After getting fish he would bring it to his mother, or sold the caught fish in the town.
One day, when Malin Kundang was sailing, he saw a merchant’s ship which was being raided by a small band of pirates. He helped the merchant. With his brave and power, Malin Kundang defeated the pirates. The merchant was so happy and thanked to him. In return the merchant asked Malin Kundang to sail with him. To get a better life, Malin Kundang agreed. He left his mother alone.
Many years later, Malin Kundang became wealthy. He had a huge ship and was helped by many ship crews loading trading goods. Perfectly he had a beautiful wife too. When he was sailing his trading journey, his ship landed on a beach near a small village. The villagers recognized him. The news ran fast in the town; “Malin Kundang has become rich and now he is here”.
An old woman ran to the beach to meet the new rich merchant. She was Malin Kundang’s mother. She wanted to hug him, released her sadness of being lonely after so long time. Unfortunately, when the mother came, Malin Kundang who was in front of his well dressed wife and his ship crews denied meeting that old lonely woman. For three times her mother begged Malin Kundang and for three times he yelled at her. At last Malin Kundang said to her “Enough, old woman! I have never had a mother like you, a dirty and ugly woman!” After that he ordered his crews to set sail. He would leave the old mother again but in that time she was full of both sadness and angriness.
Finally, enraged, she cursed Malin Kundang that he would turn into a stone if he didn’t apologize. Malin Kundang just laughed and really set sail.
In the quiet sea, suddenly a thunderstorm came. His huge ship was wrecked and it was too late for Malin Kundang to apologize. He was thrown by the wave out of his ship. He fell on a small island. It was really too late for him to avoid his curse. Suddenly, he turned into a stone.

(Re-written from
Narrative Analysis on Generic Structure

Many believe that a story can teach a society certain moral value. Most stories are build in narrative. Because it is a narrative story, it must consists of complication. That complication, in fact, is the moral value which like to be taught.
Orientation; the first paragraph is set to be the story introduction. Reading the orientation, reader will know that the story is characterized with Malin Kundang and his mother. Wes Sumatra is set as the place.
Complication; this is the main element of narrative story. From the Malin Kundang myth, we know that there are more than one complication. Many stories are composed with multi complications. They are minor complication and major complication. When Malin Kundang and her mother did life hard, it can be the minor complication. this hard life in the first time was solved by his successful trading as new merchant. However this narrative sotry is more interesting when we see the major complication among the participants- Malin Kundang denied his mother after being successful merchant. In every story, complication must be ended; happy ending or sad one
Resolution; this is the end of the story, the sad ending one. Malin Kundang faces his curse of turning into a stone.

Analytical Exposition “Controlling Children Using Computer”

Controlling Children Using Computer

Computer and internet are useful as well as powerful. Information about health and safe usage of computer and Internet, especially for children, should be owned by each family. Computer connected to internet is powerful way to socialize with others. It can be good but also bad effect. Recently we hear a lot of children get the advantage of social networking sites but we often see the news about the disadvantage of it for children. Healthy and safety of computer and Internet usage should continue to be campaigned.

The role of parent in assisting and directing children in using computer is very necessary. Installation of software monitor such as key logger which has function to watch and note all activities relating to keyboard usage is helpful but not enough to protect children from potential harms. Children tend to hide what they have done in front of the computer to their parent. They see that all of they have done are their privacy and no one may know.

We can not prevent children from using computer because it is multifunctional. However, many parents worry about what their kids do in front of the computer; whether they are doing homework or even just playing games. Or spending all time to surf internet which is the materials do not fit with his age. There is a tendency, especially teenagers, want to become acquainted with many strangers out side. The lack parental supervision of children’s activities is likely to pose a potential danger to them. So parental monitor against the use of computers needs to be done from time to time.

contoh Analytical Exposition

Laptop as Students’ Friend

Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.

First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every students’ desk, this method will help student to get better understanding.
Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students’ houses. That is really easy and save time and money.
From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provide several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need.

Analytical Exposition Sample on Accredited School

Why is It Important to Choose the Accredited School?
Most of teenagers need to go to school and there are a lot of schools over there. Nowadays, schools grow to offer plenty of choice; private and state ones. However it is a hard choice since there are many factors which need to be considered before making the selection. Some will be influenced by friends; because some friend got to certain school than we go to there too. Some prefer to choose certain school because of the closer distance. In fact, the primary decisive matter for selecting school is whether the school has been accredited or not.
Why is important to choose an accredited school? Well, accredited schools have an edge over the unaccredited schools. This label of Accredited School has an impact in employment opportunities. As result, if there are two or more students with similar qualifications, the student who comes from the accredited school will have an edge over the other candidate. Student from an accredited school has more open door than student with an accredited one.
Many students select certain school depending more on short term factors like friend influence and short distance from home. It is not bad since commuting actually needs much cost. Choosing school which is closer to home will save time, energy and money. However if that school is not accredited, the time and money spent along studying seems to be waste in the long term because it could become a limiting factor in gaining future opportunities.
Accredited school is not the only factor which will drive student’s success. Personality and characterization are very important too. However a student with good personality who comes from an accredited school is better than the others.

Analytical Exposition Analysis on the Generic Structure
Analytical exposition is one of argumentative texts which present some supporting idea on why certain writer’s opinion is important. The opinion is formulated in a thesis which needs to prove by selecting arguments.
The above example of analytical exposition about accredited school has the following generic structure:
Thesis: it is the main topic of discourse in analytical exposition essay. Commonly the thesis will be placed in the first paragraphs. It also functionalize of introduction of the text. From the text above we see that choosing school will be wiser and safer if it is based on the status of the school; accredited or not.
Arguments: the arguments are the heart of an analytical exposition. The absence of argument, analytical will just talk nothing since a thesis must be evaluated, whether it is true or false later, it does not matter. From the analytical exposition sample above, we see an accredited school graduate will hold better opportunity. Additionally choosing school based on short term interests seem to be less benefit in the end.
Reiteration: it is the writer’s thesis which is re-stated in another word. The purpose is to strengthen the thesis. From the text above, we realize that choosing an accredited school is really important.

Is Smoking Good for Us?; Example of Analytical Exposition

Is Smoking Good for Us?; Example of Analytical Exposition

Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.

Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.

Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.

Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.

Notes on the generic structure of this example of analytical exposition
As we know that both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition are classified as argumentative essay. Both present argument to support the thesis state in the orientation. This thesis places the writer’s position on the essay. From the generic structure, what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers.

Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit.

Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. In this example of analytical exposition text, paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.

Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies